NSTA Recommends; National Parenting Publications Award; Best Books Award
Science affects everything-yet so many of us wish we understood it better. Using an accessible question-and- answer format, 101 Things Everyone Should Know About Science expands every reader's knowledge. Key concepts in biology, chemistry, physics, earth, and general science are explored and demystified by an award-winning science writer and a seasoned educational trainer. Endorsed by science organizations and educators, this book is perfect for kids, grown-ups, and anyone interested in gaining a better understanding of how science impacts everyday life.
1.Name some characteristics of all mammals
2.What are the three states of water?
3.Why is it colder an hour after sunrise than it is at sunrise itself?
4.How can you use a lemon to light a light bulb?
1. All mammals have backbones, are warm-blooded, have hair or fur, and drink their mother's milk when they are born. All mammals are vertebrates, which means they have backbones, unlike worms or insects. They are also able to maintain a constant body temperature, which is called being warm-blooded. Mammals have hair or fur at some point in their lives, and the females produce milk for their young through mammary glands. Mammals have large brains with modified skulls, complex teeth, and three ear bones.
2. Liquid, solid, and gas. Water exists in three states. We use the liquid state most often in our daily activities, for drinking, washing things, and cooking. Liquids do not hold a shape, but they maintain the same volume. In humans, liquid water makes up about 70 percent of our bodies. Ice, snow, and frost are frozen water. Water's freezing temperature-the highest temperature at which water will become solid-is 32°F (0°C). Water vapor is water in its gaseous state. Until it reappears as a liquid or solid, it is invisible. Water evaporates into the air from bodies of water and from plant and animal respiration. Water vapor is an important regulator of the earth's heat. Without it, and other so-called greenhouse gases, our planet would be very hot by day and very cold at night. A gas doesn't hold its shape or maintain its volume. For example, if you pour one liter of water from a watering can into a bucket, it's still one liter. If you take one liter of water vapor and release it into a two-liter bottle, it will spread out to fill the entire bottle. At sea level, water vaporizes at 212°F (100°C).
3. Because the planet continues losing heat after sunrise. We think the minimum temperature should occur at sunrise because the earth has been cooling down all night. The temperature drops throughout the night because of two processes. The earth no longer receives energy from the sun, and the earth radiates energy to space. Overnight, the balance is strongly negative, and the earth loses heat. At sunrise, solar energy again arrives, but the heat loss due to radiation to space dominates until about an hour after sunrise. At that time, incoming solar radiation increases enough to overcome the radiational heat loss.
4. Turn the lemon into a battery. A lemon can be used like a battery by placing a copper penny and a steel paper clip (or a zinc-coated nail) into slits cut into the lemon skin, then connecting the penny and clip with a small piece of wire. The two different metals react with the acid in the lemon juice and cause electrons to travel from the negative terminal (the steel or zinc) to the positive terminal (the penny). An electric potential is created when the different metals are immersed in the lemon, and you can measure this with a voltmeter. One lemon alone will probably not produce enough power to light a bulb, but if you link four or more lemons together in a circuit by connecting the negative terminal of one lemon to the positive terminal of the next, and so on, you may get enough electricity to light an LED bulb, or some other small device.
Not an ordinary mystery book, One Minute Mysteries: 65 Short Mysteries You Solve With Science! makes science fun. These short mysteries have a clever twist-you have to tap into your science wisdom to solve them. Each story, just one minute long, challenges your knowledge in earth, space, life, physical, chemical and general science. Exercise critical thinking skills with dozens of science mysteries (solutions included) that will keep you entertained-and eager to learn more! Written by a father-daughter team, this entertaining and educational book is great for kids, grown-ups, educators and anyone who loves good mysteries, good science, or both!
Sample Questions and Answers:
1. At a one-week ski camp in mid-winter, three best friends were in the same group-Carla, Sasha and Elizabeth. Today their group was going on a treasure hunt for a bag of candy. They had a map with names of the different ski trails and clues that led them to the right ones. After going down several trails and up some ski lifts, they found a tree painted with an X. Also on the tree was a large scratch mark. "X marks the spot," Carla said. They took off their skis and dug in the snow at the base of the tree. But there was only an empty box. They skied down to the ski school, where they found Leslie Coyle, their instructor. "We found the box, but there was no candy in it," Sasha said. "I asked the workers to take out the prize because of the bears," Ms. Coyle said. "Bears can smell food even through a box and we don't want them going to the areas where there are skiers." Elizabeth noticed a big bag of candy on Ms. Coyle's desk. "Stealer!" Elizabeth said, laughing. "You just wanted the candy for yourself. And I can prove it." "So, prove it," Ms. Coyle laughed. "Are you saying there are no bears in this area? Or that bears couldn't smell candy through a box?" Answer: "There are bears here-that's what made the scratch mark on the tree," replied Elizabeth. "And bears probably could smell the candy through a box. But it's the middle of winter. Bears are hibernating now, so they wouldn't be out roaming around," Elizabeth said as they all shared the candy.
2. "No kidding, your coach taught you how to throw a curve ball?" Wayne asked. "Yep," Randy said. Randy was a good athlete. He was quarterback for his football team in the fall, point guard for his basketball team in the winter and pitcher for his baseball team in the spring. "I thought you weren't allowed to throw curve balls until you got older," said Wayne. "The rule actually is that you can only throw so many curve balls in a practice or a game," Randy said. "Because throwing too many can hurt your arm." "Can you show me how?" Wayne asked. They were standing in the school courtyard at break time after lunch. The problem was they didn't have a baseball, just a smooth ball about the size and weight of a baseball. "Okay, you grip it like this," Randy said, showing Wayne how to position his fingers. "When you throw it, you snap your hand down to put topspin on it. Like this." Randy threw the ball with a downward snap of his wrist, but the ball just went straight. Wayne retrieved the ball after it bounced off the brick wall and handed it back to Randy. "Try again," Wayne said. Randy did, snapping his wrist harder this time. But still the ball went straight. After three more tries with the same result, Randy said, "The ball was really curving for me at practice last night. What's happening?" Answer: "At practice, you were using a real baseball, which has stitches that are above the surface of the ball," Wayne said. "The stitches are what grab into the air when you put topspin on the ball by snapping your wrist. Because of the topspin, air is moved out of the way under the ball, lowering the air pressure there, and more air is brought around to the top of the ball, raising the air pressure there. The result is the ball curves down. It's the same reason golf balls have dimples-to grab the air. Except in golf, backspin is put on the ball and the dimples help it go up. This ball is smooth, so you don't get that effect."